This book is the first to bring an economics perspective in a rigorous manner to complex decision-making in the management of supply chains. It provides the foundations for the modeling of the interrelationships among decision-makers in supply chains, ranging from manufacturers, distributors, and retailers, to the consumers, assuming individualized behavior. The models handle both competition and cooperation and provide the resulting product flows and prices in the chains. A unique network economics perspective is brought to the issue, setting the book apart from the numerous management and operations research volumes available. After an introduction of the theoretical foundations, the book extends and applies the theory to energy supply chains in the form of electric power generation and distribution networks. The relationships between electric power supply chains and transportation networks are vividly captured through theoretical results and the solution of practical examples. The book then explores environmental supply chain and financial networks with intermediation, which are interpreted as supply chains and also solved as such. Throughout, the underlying theme is that of transportation networks and how the relationships between supply chain networks and the more established theory of transportation network equilibria can be applied and exploited for logistic-type applications. Economists and transportation researchers will find the book's theory and applications of great interest. Operations researchers and management scientists as well as practitioners in business logistics will be interested in the book's methodological and practical tools.